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Milton Glaser (born June 26, 1929) is an American graphic designer. His designs include the I ❤ NY logo, the psychedelic Bob Dylan poster, and the Brooklyn Brewery logo. In 1954, he also co-founded Push Pin Studios, founded New York Magazine with Clay Felker, and established Milton Glaser, Inc. in 1974. His artwork has been featured in exhibits, and placed in permanent collections in many museums worldwide. Throughout his long career, he has designed many posters, publications and architectural designs. He has received many awards for his work, including the National Medal of the Arts award from President Barack Obama in 2009, and was the first graphic designer to receive this award.
Glaser was born in New York City to Hungarian Jewish immigrants. He attended The High School of Music & Art, and graduated from Cooper Union in New York City. By a fulbright scholarship, he also studied graphic design at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bologna, Italy. 1954 he co-founded Push Pin Studios, along with fellow Cooper grads Edward Sorel, Seymour Chwast, and Reynold Ruffins. Glaser and Chwast directed Push Pin for twenty years, while it became a guiding reference in the world of graphic design. In 1983, Glaser teamed up with Walter Bernard and started a publication design firm called WBMG in New York City. WBMG has designed more than 50 magazines, newspapers and periodicals around the world.
Over his career, Glaser has personally designed and illustrated more than 300 posters. His work is displayed in the Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum, New York; the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; and the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. His work has also been featured in exhibits all over the world. He has also done one-man shows at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris and the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
Glaser is the subject of the 2009 documentary film To Inform and Delight: The World of Milton Glaser.
After graduating at the Cooper Union in New York City, Reynold Ruffins, Seymour Chwast, Edward Sorel and Glaser, founded Push Pin Studios in 1954. Glaser joined after his return in Italy. In 1957, the "Push Pin Monthly Graphic," was sent out to friends and clients. They rejected tradition and favored “reinvigorated interpretations of historical styles.” The studio “redefined and expanded the imprimatur of the designer, illustrator, and visual culture at large.”
In 1966, Glaser designed a poster for Bob Dylan’s “Greatest Hits” LP. It was one of Glaser’s first posters. The poster depicts the profile of Bob’s face with psychedelic, swirly hair, with “Dylan” written at the bottom in one of Glaser’s typefaces. His inspiration for the poster was Marcel Duchamp’s 1957 Self-Portrait; and Art Nouveau, “That was an influence for the colors and shapes in the picture.” 6 million posters have been printed and distributed, and sells for hundreds of dollars, and has become a huge collectable.I Heart New York Logo
One of Glaser's most recognizable works is his I Heart New York logo. In the mid-1970s, New York City's crime rate was up and the city was widely perceived to be dangerous and was on the verge of bankruptcy. In 1977, the city hired advertising agency Wells Rich Greene and Milton Glaser to design a logo to increase tourism and boost morale. It was Glaser who came up with the design in the back of a taxi cab on the way to the meeting. The logo consist of the capital "I" and a red heart, stacked on top of "NY," symbolizing New York in American Typewriter typeface. His inspiration for the logo was Robert Indiana's LOVE design, with the four letters stacked on top of each other. "Glaser loved New York so much that he gave his work to the city for free, hoping it would become public property."
Today, the logo has earned the New York state $30 million each year and has become a pop culture icon and has been reproduced on T-shirts and hats, and can be seen everywhere in New York. Imitations have been made, for example "I Heart Radio." The state has been filling nearly 3,000 objections against them.
After the September 11 Terrorist attacks, the logo has become even more of a symbol, creating unity between the public. Glaser had even designed a modified version saying, "I Love New York More than Ever," in response to the attacks. The Heart had a little black spot to symbolize the attack on the World Trade Center site.
In 1968, Glaser and Clay Felker teamed up and started New York magazine. Through the magazine, Glaser reinvented service journalism. The magazine was about being on the reader's side, “it was about what was happening in New York city at the time.” One example of this is “The Underground Gourmet.” It was about cheap restaurants in New York. Glaser wrote the article for seven years with Jerome Snyder. It was one of the most popular columns in the magazine. The New York magazine, “became the model for the city magazines, and stimulated a host of imitations.” Glaser left the magazine in 1977.
In 2004, Glaser won a National Design Award Lifetime Achievement from the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum for his profound and meaningful long-term contributions to the contemporary practice of design.
In 2009, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Barack Obama and Mrs. Michelle Obama at the White House. The award is managed by the National Endowment for the Arts, or NEA. Each year the NEA presents the award to ten recipients for their outstanding achievements and support of the arts. “These individual and organizations show us how many ways art works every day. They represent the breadth and depth of American architecture, design, film, music, performance, theatre, and visual art.” Glaser is the first graphic designer to receive this award.Not to be confused with WebCite. A NASA.gov homepage
A website, or simply site, is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network (LAN), by referencing a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site.
Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website, a commercial website for a company, a government website or a non-profit organization website. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are typically a part of an intranet.
Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.
Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content. Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. As of 2016 end users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers, smartphones and smart TVs.Main article: History of the World Wide Web NASA.gov homepage as it appeared in April 2015
The World Wide Web (WWW) was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and chooses files to download. Documents were most often presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats.
Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website, a commercial website, a government website or a non-profit organization website. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, and are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, PDAs and cell phones. A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server, also called an HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) server. These terms can also refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most commonly used web server software (according to Netcraft statistics) and Microsoft's IIS is also commonly used. Some alternatives, such as Nginx, Lighttpd, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are fully functional and lightweight.Main article: Static web page
A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format that is sent to a client web browser. It is primarily coded in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML); Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are used to control appearance beyond basic HTML. Images are commonly used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might also be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is generally non-interactive. This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will generally provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text, photos and other content and may require basic website design skills and software. Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are often static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, photos, animations, audio/video, and navigation menus.
Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software:
Static websites may still use server side includes (SSI) as an editing convenience, such as sharing a common menu bar across many pages. As the site's behaviour to the reader is still static, this is not considered a dynamic site.Server-side programming languages repartition on 28 April 2016. Main articles: Dynamic web page and Web application
A dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently and automatically. Server-side dynamic pages are generated "on the fly" by computer code that produces the HTML (CSS are responsible for appearance and thus, are static files). There are a wide range of software systems, such as CGI, Java Servlets and Java Server Pages (JSP), Active Server Pages and ColdFusion (CFML) that are available to generate dynamic web systems and dynamic sites. Various web application frameworks and web template systems are available for general-use programming languages like Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby to make it faster and easier to create complex dynamic websites.
While "web site" was the original spelling sometimes capitalized "Web site", since "Web" is a proper noun when referring to the World Wide Web), this variant has become rarely used, and "website" has become the standard spelling. All major style guides, such as The Chicago Manual of Style and the AP Stylebook, have reflected this change.
Websites can be divided into two broad categories—static and interactive. Interactive sites are part of the Web 2.0 community of sites, and allow for interactivity between the site owner and site visitors or users. Static sites serve or capture information but do not allow engagement with the audience or users directly. Some websites are informational or produced by enthusiasts or for personal use or entertainment. Many websites do aim to make money, using one or more business models, including:
There are many varieties of websites, each specializing in a particular type of content or use, and they may be arbitrarily classified in any number of ways. A few such classifications might include:
Some websites may be included in one or more of these categories. For example, a business website may promote the business's products, but may also host informative documents, such as white papers. There are also numerous sub-categories to the ones listed above. For example, a porn site is a specific type of e-commerce site or business site (that is, it is trying to sell memberships for access to its site) or have social networking capabilities. A fansite may be a dedication from the owner to a particular celebrity. Websites are constrained by architectural limits (e.g., the computing power dedicated to the website). Very large websites, such as Facebook, Yahoo!, Microsoft, and Google employ many servers and load balancing equipment such as Cisco Content Services Switches to distribute visitor loads over multiple computers at multiple locations. As of early 2011, Facebook utilized 9 data centers with approximately 63,000 servers.
In February 2009, Netcraft, an Internet monitoring[disambiguation needed] company that has tracked Web growth since 1995, reported that there were 215,675,903 websites with domain names and content on them in 2009, compared to just 19,732 websites in August 1995. After reaching 1 billion websites in September 2014, a milestone confirmed by NetCraft in its October 2014 Web Server Survey and that Internet Live Stats was the first to announce—as attested by this tweet from the inventor of the World Wide Web himself, Tim Berners-Lee—the number of websites in the world has subsequently declined, reverting to a level below 1 billion. This is due to the monthly fluctuations in the count of inactive websites. The number of websites again grew to over 1 billion in March 2016, and has continued growing since.
You don’t have to use Polymer like a framework. But you can. And we recommend it. Google’s Polymer team has created a bunch of useful components to solve problems like routing, session storage, and state management that are usually baked into frameworks. The easiest way to start building a new app with Predix UI components and Google’s app helpers is to use the predix-webapp-starter. It takes the building blocks Polymer provides and turns them into a simple, speedy web app framework that looks and works a bit like Angular.
a node.js microapp that helps you connect with Predix platform backend services like the Timeseries Service and Asset Servicea set of gulp tasks you can run on the command line to serve your app during development and build it for productiona lazy-loading progressive web app architecture that ensures your app loads quickly even on slow internet connections
If you’ve already invested in a bunch of code in another framework, or if you have specific requirements that would be better served by Angular or React or something else, Predix UI is still here to help you. Jump over to our documentation site and start using the Predix UI components to speed up your work.
Mess with demos and read more about Predix UI on our websiteRead Rob Dodson’s “The Case For Custom Elements: Part 1” and “Part 2” for some great technical and architecture info on custom elements, one half of the web component standardsRead about px-vis, Predix UI’s charting framework designed to visualize millions of streaming data points for industrial internet application
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